Krsna who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.**
Brahma-samhita, Chapter Five, 1st verse, Translated by Kusakratha Dasa. Commentary by Srila Jiva Gosvami
Within my heart I worship the splendour of Lord Krsna’s transcendental form. I desire that by Lord Krsna’s mercy I will be able to explain the verses of Brahma-samhita.
Although the Brahma-samhita is a very difficult book, the commentaries of the sages have made it easy to understand. My words follow their explanations.
Although the Brahma-samhita contains one hundred chapters, because this chapter briefly describes Lord Krsna’s transcendental form, it is the best.
The same transcendental sweetness the pure-hearted devotees sees in Srimad-Bhagavatam and other Vaisnava-sastras is also present in the Brahma-samhita. For this reason my heart is now happy.
After due reflection, in this book I have lightly touched on the same topics more elaborately explained in my Sri Krsna-sandarbha.
Srimad Bhagavatam (1.3.28) explains:
“All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead.*
Brahma-samhita begins with a similar declaration of the supremacy of Lord Krsna. In this verse the Supreme Personality of Godhead is specifically identified as Lord Krsna. As the name Lord Krsna is spoken first in the passage beginning "Krsnavatarotsava” and other statements of Srila Sukadeva Gosvami and other great souls, as the name of Krsna is given first in the statement “krsnaya vasudevaya devaki-nandanaya” of the Sama Upanisad, as the name of Krsna is given first in Garga Muni’s revelation of the Lord’s holy names, and as the example “payasa kumbham purayati” is also given, in the same way this verse of Brahma-samhita gives the name Krsna first because the form of Lord Krsna is the origin of all other forms of Godhead.
That Krsna is the most important name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is explains in the Padma Purana, Prabhasa-khanda, where, in a conversation between Narada and Kusadhvaja, the following words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are repeated:
“O Arjuna, of all My holy names, Krsna is the most important.”
The importance of the name Krsna is also confirmed in the Brahmanda Purana, Sri Krsnastottara-sata-nama-stotra, where Lord Krsna says:
“The pious results derived from chanting the thousand names of Lord Visnu three times can be attained by only one repetition of the holy name of Krsna.”*
In the first verse of Brahma-samhita the name “Govinda” is also given. This name is given to Lord Krsna because He is the master of the spiritual surabhi cows. Because Lord Krsna is all-powerful, the first verse of Brahma-samhita describes Him as “isvara”. Lord Krsna is also described in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.13 and 15).
“Your son Krsna appears as an incarnations in every millennium. In the past He assumed three different colours: white, red, and yellow, and now He has appeared in a blackish colour.”*
“From this son of yours there are many forms and names according to His transcendental qualities and activities. These are known to me, but people in general do not understand them.”*
In these verses the word “asya” (of Him) refers to Lord Krsna “anuyugam means "in every millennium”, “tanuh” means “the forms of various incarnations”, “grhnatah” means “manifests”, “varnas trayah” means “the colours beginning with white”, and “asan” means “manifested. In these verses Garga Muni says, "In Satya yuga and other yugas the Lord appeared in a white form and forms of other colours, but now (idanim) He has appeared in His original form, the form of Lord Krsna (krsnatam gatah). Because Lord Krsna is the original, the best form of the Personality of Godhead, the name Krsna is the most important of His names, and the other forms of Godhead (bahuni rupani) are manifested from the original form, Krsna. That the transcendental qualities of the name Krsna make it the most important of God’s names is confirmed in the following statement of Vaisnava literature:
"The word "krs” is the attractive feature of the Lord’s existence and “na” means spiritual pleasure. when the verb “krs” is added to the affix “na”, it becomes Krsna, which indicates the Absolute Truth
In this way the name Krsna is described. The verse of Vaisnava literature does not accept any other name as the most important name of God. In the Astadasaksara-mantra-vyakhya of both the Upasana Tantra and the Gautamiya Tantra the following similar verse may be seen:
“The word "krs” means ‘eternal transcendental existence" and 'na’ means “spiritual pleasure”. When the verb “krs” is added to the affix “na”, it becomes Krsna, which indicates the eternally blissful Absolute Truth.“
The word "bhu” comes from the verb “bhu”, which may mean “to be” or “to attract”. In the quotation from Vaisnava literature the word is interpreted to mean “attraction” and in the quote from Gautamiya Tantra, “bhu” is interpreted to mean “existence”.
The word “bhu” may thus be interpreted to mean “existence”, but in this case it may not be interpreted to mean “movement” or “generalness”. The primary meaning is “attraction”. The secondary meaning is “existence”. The meanings “movement” and “generalness” cannot be accepted here.
The word “nirvrtti” means “bliss”. The phrase “tayor aikyam” means “when the two syllables are placed together into a word”. “Param brahma” means “the substance that is the greatest of all”. In the phrase “krsna ity abhidhiyate” an alternate reading replaces the word “abhidhiyate” with “iryate” (is named).
Aside from these varied considerations, the primary meaning of the two syllables Krsna is that “krs” means “attraction” and “na” means “transcendental bliss”. The word “krs” meaning “attracting” should be understood to mean “ that which attracts”, just as in the adage “ayur ghrtam” (ghee is long life) ghee is equated with long life because eating foods cooked in ghee makes one long-lived.
Various explanations of the word “param brahma” are given in the scriptures. For example, the Visnu Purana declares:
“The wise know that the word 'param brahma’ means 'He who is the greatest’ and 'He who nourishes and protects all living entities’”.
The Gautamiya Tantra also gives the following explanation of the word “param brahma”:
“The word 'krs’ means 'eternal transcendental existence’ and 'na’ means 'spiritual pleasure’. These two syllables, meaning eternal existence and spiritual pleasure, are joined to become the word 'Krsna’, the name of the param brahma.”
The advaitavadis (monists) think the phrase “satta-svanandayor yogat” in this verse means “distinction such as eternal existence and transcendental bliss lose their separateness and become one in the impersonal absolute.” Because the words “sat” and “ananda” have different meanings, and because, even if these two words are taken to be synonyms, their repetition in a sentence is meaningless (as if we were to repeat the word “vrksa” and “taru”, which both mean “tree” within a single sentence), the conclusion of the impersonalists must be false.
The word “sat” (eternal) is used here to mean “the Supreme Eternal, who is the source of all other eternals”. This is described in these words of the Sruti-sastra:
“O noble student, in the beginning only the eternal existed.”
The verse from the Gautamiya Tantra may be explained in the following way. The first half of the verse describes Lord Krsna, who is all-attractive and full of transcendental bliss. The second half of the first states that because Lord Krsna is blissful and all-attractive He delights all living entities. For this reason the scriptures declare:
“Because they find transcendental bliss in Him, the devotees have fallen in love with Sri Krsna.”
In this way the word Krsna should be understood to mean “He who is full of transcendental bliss, and whose handsome form and transcendental qualities attract all living entities.” For this reason popular usage interprets the word “devakinandana” to mean “He who pleases Devaki.” Sri Krsna’s delighting everyone may be seen in the following statement of the Vasudeva Upanisad:
“Lord Krsna, the son of Devaki delights everyone”.
“Lord Krsna is independently perfect, eternally changeless, and the origin of all transcendental bliss.”
For these reasons the popular explanation of the word Devakinandana (He who pleases Devaki) should be accepted and not rejected in favour of the views of pedantic grammarians. This is confirmed by the following statement of great scholars:
“When popular usage interprets a word in a way very appropriate to the object it describes, that interpretation should be accepted. When scientific etymology interprets a word in a way not appropriate to the object described, that meaning should not be accepted.”
That Sri Krsna is the Supreme Brahman is affirmed in the words of Srimad-Bhagavatam:
“The form of the Supreme Brahman is the humanlike form of Sri Krsna.”
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.32) is also said:
“How greatly fortunate are Nanda Maharaja, the cowherd men and all the inhabitants of Vrajabhumi! There is no limit to their fortune because the Absolute Truth, the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal Supreme Brahma, has become their friend.”*
In the Visnu Purana it is said:
“The Supreme Brahman, who has a humanlike form and who bears the name Krsna, has descended to this world.”
In the Bhagavad-gita (14.27) Lord Krsna declares:
“I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman.”*
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad it is said:
“The cowherd boy Krsna is the Supreme Brahman.”
Now let us return to the first verse of Brahmapsamhita. Now that we have explained the word “Krsna”, we will proceed to the word “isvara”. “Isvara” means “the supreme controller of everyone”. This is seen in the following description of the word Krsna in the Gautamiya Tantra:
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, controls (krs) all moving and unmoving beings. Therefore He is name 'Krsna’”.
In this verse the word “kala” means “controller”. It is derived from the verb “kal”, which means “to control”. That Sri Krsna is the supreme controller is also confirmed by the following words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.21):
“Lord Sri Krsna is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshipped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet.”*
In Bhagavad-gita (10.42) Lord Krsna declares:
“With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.”*
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad it is said:
“Sri Krsna is the worshipable and all-pervading supreme controller.”
Now that the word “isvara” has been explained, we will describe the word “parama”. “Para” means “supreme” and “ma” means “mother”. The “para-mas” therefore are the goddesses of fortune who are Lord Krsna’s internal potencies. They are described in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.59.43).
“Full of transcendental bliss, Lord Krsna enjoyed pastimes with the beautiful gopis, who were all goddesses of fortune.”
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.47.60) it is also said:
“When Lord Sri Krsna was dancing with the gopis in the rasa-lila, the gopis were embraced by the arms of the Lord. This transcendental favour was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the other consorts in the spiritual world. Indeed, never was such a thing even imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets whose bodily lustre and aroma resemble the lotus flower. And what to speak of worldly women who are very beautiful according to material estimation.”*
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.6) it is also said:
“Although the son of Devaki, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is also the reservoir of all kinds of beauty, when He is among the gopis He nonetheless becomes more beautiful, for He resembles a marakata jewel surrounded by gold and other jewels.”*
In the Brahma-samhita (56) it is said:
“In Svetadvipa the Laksmis in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the Supreme Lord Krsna as their only lover.”**
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad it is said:
:Lord Krsna is worshipped by the goddess of fortune.“
Sri Krsna is described as "adi” (the origin of all). This is explained in the following words of Srimad-hagavatam (10.72.15):
“Hearing that Jarasandha had not been defeated, Maharaja Yudhisthira began to think of a plan to defeat him. At that time Lord Hari, who is the origin of all, spoke the plan that had already been formulated by Uddhava.”
“The word "hari” refers to Sri Krsna, who is the origin of all.“
That Sri Krsna is the Supreme and the origin of all is declared in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam:
"I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is the origin of all.”
Then again, Sri Krsna is not “adi” but “anadi” (He who has no origin). This is described in Gopala-tapani Upanisad, which declares:
“Sri Krsna is the chief eternal among many eternals.”
Next, the word “sarva-karana-karanam” means “the prime cause of all causes”. This means that He is the creator of the universes and the origin of the purusa-avatara. This is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.85.31) where Devaki tells Lord Krsna:
“O Lord of the universe, O original Supreme Person, by a portion of a portion of a portion of Yourself You create, maintain and destroy the material universes. Now I take shelter of You.”
Sridhara Svami comments on this verse in these words: “The first portion mentioned here is the purusa-avatara. A portion of Him is the illusory potency maya. A portion of maya is the modes of nature. By a portion of the modes of nature the universes are created, maintained and destroyed. "tva” means 'of You’ and 'gatim gata’ means 'I take shelter’.“
That Sri Krsna is the origin of the purusa-avatara is also described in the following prayer of Lord Brahma (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.14):
"O Lord Krsna, Narayana refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) and that Narayana is Your plenary portion.”*
The word Narayana is also explained in these words:
“Manifested from Lord Garbhodakasayi Visnu (Nara), the inert material elements are called 'nara’. Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate resting place (ayana) of these material elements (nara), He is known as Narayana.”
These words, then, mean “O Lord, Narayana is a portion of Your body.” That Sri Krsna is the origin of the purusa-avatara, a portion of whom creates, maintains and destroys the universes is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (10.42), where Lord Krsna declares:
“With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.”*
By all of this the proper explanation of the word Krsna is given. By the two syllables “krs” and “na” the blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead is described. By the word “isvara” and other words Lord Krsna’s transcendental potencies are described. He is declared to be the Supreme, who has no rival, who is the prime cause of all causes, and who is the master of His internal potencies. His potencies are described in these words of the Sruti-sastra:
“The Supreme Brahman is full of transcendental bliss.”
In the Sruti-sastra it is also said:
“Who can find transcendental bliss if he does not find it in the Supreme Personality of Godhead?”
In the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8) it is said:
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead does not possess bodily form like that of an ordinary living entity. There is no difference between His body and His soul. He is absolute. All His senses are transcendental. any one of His senses can perform the action of any other sense. Therefore, no one is greater than Him or equal to Him. His potencies are multifarious, and thus His deeds are automatically performed as a natural sequence.”*
At this point someone may raise the following objection: “If Krsna is all-attractive and filled with supreme transcendental bliss, then must He not be formless? After all, forms do not contain transcendental bliss.”
To this objection the following reply may be given: Yes. That is true. Material forms do not contain transcendental bliss. However, Lord Krsna’s wonderful form is filled with perfect transcendental bliss. This is described in the first verse of Brahma-samhita in the word “sac-cid-ananda-vigraha” (He has an eternal, blissful spiritual body). This truth is also confirmed in the following words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.22):
“O Krsna, Your eternal transcendental form is full of knowledge and bliss.”
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad and the Hayasirsa-pancaratra it is said:
“I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krsna, whose transcendental form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and who rescues His devotees from distress.”
In the Brahmanda Purana, Astottara-sata-nama-stotra, it is said:
“Lord Krsna’s transcendental form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. Lord Krsna delights the residents of Nanda Maharaja’s land of Vraja.”
In these verses the word “sat” should be understood to mean “eternal and unchanging”. That Lord Krsna’s form is eternal and unchanging is confirmed by the following words of the demigods in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.26):
“O Lord Krsna, You never deviate from Your vow, which is always perfect because whatever You decide is perfectly correct and cannot be stopped by anyone. Being present in the three phases of cosmic manifestation: creation, maintenance and annihilation, You are the Supreme Truth.”*
In the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.25) Devaki explains:
“After millions of years, at the time of cosmic annihilation, when everything, manifested and unmanifested is annihilated by the force of time, the five gross elements enter into the subtle conception, and the manifested categories enter into the unmanifested substance. At that time, You alone remain, and You are known as Ananta Sesa-naga.”*
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.27), Devaki also declares:
“No one in this material world has become free from the four principles of birth, death, old age and disease, even by fleeing to various planets. But now that You have appeared, My Lord, death is fleeing in fear of You, and the living entities, having obtained shelter at Your lotus feet by Your mercy, are sleeping in full mental peace.”*
In the scriptures it is also said:
“O Lord Krsna, in the beginning You alone were manifest.”
Lord Brahma also declares:
“In the end only the Supreme Brahman, who is free from all dualities, remains.”
In Bhagavad-gita (14.27) Lord Krsna declares:
“And I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable, and eternal, and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness.”*
In the Bhagavad-gita (15.18) Lord Krsna also declares:
“Because I am transcendental, beyond both the fallible and the infallible, and because I am the greatest, I am celebrated both in the world and in he Vedas as that Supreme Person.”*
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad it is said:
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead is always free from the material transformations of birth, death, old age, and disease. He is eternal and unchanging. He cannot be cut to pieces or killed by anyone. He stays in Vrndavana. He stays among the cows. He protects the cows. He stays among the cowherd people.”
In the Gopala-tapani Upanisad it is also said:
“Death fears Lord Krsna.”
In this verse the word “saurya” means “the land of Vrndavana”. “Surya” means “the sun-god”, “sauri” means “the Yamuna river, who is the daughter of the sun-god”, and “saurya” means “the land of Vrndavana, through which the Yamuna flows.”
In this first verse of Brahma-samhita the word “cit” refers to Lord Krsna’s spiritual form, which He reveals to others when He wishes.“ This form is described by Lord Brahma in these words (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.1.4.23):
"You are the Supreme soul, Absolute Truth, and the Supreme original person. You are the Supreme, one without a second. You are the source of the original brahmajyoti.”*
This form of Krsna is also described in these word of Gopala-tapani Upanisad:
“It is Krsna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past. They who aspire to become liberated surrender to Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who gives transcendental knowledge to His devotees.”*
In the Sruti-sastra it is said:
“With material eyes one cannot see the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”
In the Svetasvatara Upanisad it is said:
“By His own will the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals Himself to whomever He chooses.”
Next we will discuss the explanation that Lord Krsna’s transcendental body is full of bliss (ananda). Lord Krsna’s form is full of bliss because His limbs are the abode of the boundless love. That Sri Krsna is the blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead is explained in the questions and answers of Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.49-58. It is also explained in these words of Maharaja Vasudeva (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.3.13):
“My Lord, You are the blissful Supreme Person, beyond material existence, and You are the Supersoul. Your form can be perceived by transcendental knowledge, by which You can be understood as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I now understand Your position perfectly.”*
In the Sruti-sastra it is also said:
“The form of the supreme Personality of Godhead is full of bliss.”
In this way it is proved that Lord Krsna has a perfect, eternal, blissful, spiritual body, he does not have a material body like that of a conditioned soul. This is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.55) where Srila Sukadeva Gosvami says:
“You should know Krsna as the original soul of all atmas (living entities). For the benefit of the whole universe, He has, out of His causeless mercy, appeared as an ordinary human being. He has done this with the strength of His own internal potency.”*
This verse states that by Lord Krsna’s mercy He manifests pastimes like those of an ordinary human being who has a material body. The word “mayaya” in this verse may be taken to mean “by His mercy”. The Visva-prakasa dictionary declares:
“The word 'maya’ may mean either 'illusion’ or 'mercy’.”
Lord Krsna enjoys many different pastimes in His transcendental form. Sometimes He accepts the role of a king in the Vrsni dynasty, and sometimes He becomes Govinda, the protector of the surabhi cows. This is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (12.11.25):
“O Krsna, O friend of Arjuna, O chief among the descendants of Vrsni, You are the destroyer of those political parties that are disturbing elements on this earth. Your prowess never deteriorates. You are the proprietor of the transcendental abode, and Your most sacred glories, which are sung by Vrndavana’s cowherd men and women and their servants, bestow all auspiciousness just by being heard. O Lord, please protect Your devotees.”***
By His own wish the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests His worshipable form of Govinda and enjoys specific transcendental pastimes with specific eternal associates. The Govinda feature of the Lord will be glorified in Brahma-samhita beginning with text 29. Govinda is also described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.27.20-23), where, in the beginning of Govinda-abhiseka, the surabhi cow prayed:
“O Lord of the universe, You are our king, our Indra.”
When the abhiseka was completed, Srimad-Bhagavatam explains:
“Then the surabhi cows gave the Lord the name Govinda.”
After narrating these pastimes, Srila Sukadeva Gosvami prayed:
“May Lord Govinda, the king of the surabhi cows, be pleased with us.”
Although Lord Krsna is the master and shelter of everyone, He is especially the master of the surabhi cows. For this reason the name Govinda should not be taken lightly. The importance of the cows is described in these words of the Go-sukta:
“Vedic yajnas are performed to worship the cows. The demigods rise out of respect for the cows. The four Vedas, six Vedangas, and the pada method of recitation are all manifested from the cows.”
Lord Krsna is thus the master of the surabhi cows, who are liberated souls descended to this world from the Goloka Vrndavana planet in the spiritual sky. Lord Brahma also worships the Govinda feature of the Lord, as Brahma himself declares in these words of the Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.38):
“By offering prayers in the company of the Maruts and other demigods, I always please the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Govinda, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and who sits beneath a kalpa-vrksa tree.”
The glorious surabhi cows and other residents of Vrndavana are also glorified in these words spoken by Brahma (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.34).
“My dear Lord, I am most humbly praying at Your lotus feet for You to please give me any sort of birth within this Vrndavana forest so that I may be able to be favoured by the dust of the feet of some of the devotees of Vrndavana. Even if I am given the chance to grow just as the humble grass in this land, that will be a glorious birth for me. But if I am not so fortunate to take birth within the forest of Vrndavana, I beg to be allowed to take birth outside the immediate area of Vrndavana so that when the devotees go out they will walk over me. Even that would be a great fortune for me. I am just aspiring for a birth in which I will be smeared by the dust of the devotees’ feet. I can see that everyone here is simply full of Krsna consciousness. They do not know anything but Mukunda. All the Vedas are indeed searching after the lotus feet of Krsna.”*
Lord Krsna is also known as Nandanandana (the son of Maharaja Nanda). This feature of the Lord is described in these words (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.1) of Brahma:
“My dear Lord, You are the only worshipful Supreme Lord, Personality of Godhead. Therefore I am offering my humble obeisances and prayers just to please You. Your bodily features are of the colour of clouds filled with water. You are glittering with silver electric flashes emanating from Your yellow garments. Let me offer my respectful repeated obeisances unto the son of Maharaja Nanda who is standing before me with conchshell earrings and peacock feather on His head. His face is beautiful. He is wearing a helmet, garlanded by forest flowers, and He stands with a morsel of food in His hand. He is decorated with cane, flute, and a bugle made o buffalo horn. He stands before me with small lotus feet.”*
In this way Govinda and the other transcendental names of the Lord are explained. To conclude this description of Lord Krsna as the “isvara” (controller) and “paramesvara” (supreme controller), we will now quote the Gautamiya Tantra’s explanation of the dvadasaksara-mantra:
“In the dvadasaksara-mantra the word gopi means 'material nature’ and 'jana’ means 'the original feature of the mahat-tattva’. The word 'vallabha’ means 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the shelter of both material nature and the mahat-tattva, who is full of transcendental bliss, who is effulgent, and who, because He is the original creator of everything and because He is all-pervading within the material creation, is known as 'isvara’ (the controller).
"Another interpretation is that the word 'gopi’ means 'the material nature’ and 'jana’ means 'the Lord’s Visnu-tattva expansions’. The word 'vallabha’ means 'dear to them both’ and it refers to Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of all causes and effects and who is glorified in the Vedas.
"Another interpretation is that the word 'gopijana’ means 'the gopis, who attained spiritual perfection after many births.’ Lord Krsna is thus their husband. In this way Lord Krsna, who is the son of Nanda Maharaja, and who delights the three worlds, is described.”
In these verse the word “prakrti” means “the potency named Maya, who creates the material universes.” The word “tattva-samuhaka” means “the original feature of the mahat-tattva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is referred to by the words "anayor asrayah” and “sandranandam param jyotih” is described as “vallabhah”. The word “prakrtih” (used in the second verse) means the Maha-Laksmi potency, who is manifested from the Supreme Lord’s own form, who is beyond the touch of the material energy, and who appears in the spiritual world of Vaikuntha.“ "Amsa-mandalam” means “the Lord’s three primary Visnu expansions beginning with Lord Sankarsana.” The phrase “aneka-janma-siddhanam” refers to the beginningless cycle of births described by Lord Krsna in these words of Bhagavad-gita (4.5):
“Many births both you and I have passed, O Arjuna.”*
In this last interpretation the word “vallabha” should be understood to mean “Lord Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda”. Maharaja Nanda’s fatherhood of Lord Krsna is thus explained. Garga Muni told Maharaja Nanda (Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.14):
“For many reasons, this beautiful son of yours sometimes appeared previously as the son of Vasudeva.”*
Because He appeared in Vasudeva’s heart, Lord Krsna is also the son of Maharaja Vasudeva. This is described in the following words (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.16):
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead entered the mind of Vasudeva in full opulence.”*
Lord Krsna is also the son of Vraja’s king because at the same moment when He appeared before Vasudeva, Lord Krsna also appeared before Nanda Maharaja. This fact is described in many scriptures. Therefore the parental love Nanda Maharaja bears for Lord Krsna is very appropriate. Lord Krsna was born as the son of Vasudeva and the son of Nanda at the same moment just as Lord Varaha simultaneously was manifested on Varahaloka and as the son of Brahma. Maharaja Nanda’s love for Krsna was pure and unmixed, but Maharaja Vasudeva’s love was mixed with knowledge of his son’s divinity and transcendental opulence. Therefore the explanation in Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.14 is appropriate. In this way Lord Krsna is seen in the twelve syllable mantra.