Who says Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi is rasa-bhasa?

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By Kesava Krsna dasa

The subject of Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi has mystified many devotees. When one reads the Nectar Of Devotion and learns a little about contradictory mellows, one invariably thinks about it, then scours for recollections of examples of rasa-bhasa and happens upon a major question mark – Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi – but think “No. It cannot be.”

Many devotees are unable to explain or even answer question arising out of curiosity concerning the deities. Indeed, during Srila Prabhupada’s time some of his disciples questioned him with the inclusion of words like “isn’t it rasa-bhasa?” And today some still retain a niggling doubt, while others think this is still the case. What is the truth of the matter?

Firstly, we have to understand and be convinced that Srila Prabhupada was conversant with all facets of devotional knowledge. Any nagging uncertainty in an individual will give an impaired judgment on Srila Prabhupada’s ability to tell compatible from incompatible. It will further reduce him to the level of a moderately realized soul who misunderstood some finer points of rasa. The matter will stay unresolved and the persistent question mark will encourage bouts of why! What if? And could it be?

Here is an attempt to eliminate any trace of suspicion simply by using Srila Prabhupada’s own words. There is no resorting to conjecture either. This seemingly bold and audacious transcendental combination of Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi will be seen as an ingredient of Srila Prabhupada’s internal mood thus enhancing our appreciation of him even more.

Everything Srila Prabhupada did was systematic and consistent with his inner mood. The case of Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi certainly fits in. Unfortunately, some individuals look at certain things he did or wrote, in isolation, and extrapolate some conclusion quite contrary to his overall mood. The example of Sri Sri Krsna-Balarama in Vrndavana stands out and will be discussed in another article.

A pure devotee like Srila Prabhupada is not always understood. But his writings tell of a fully understood grasp of matters simple and arcane. He writes in [NOD page 392]: “….in the mixture of various mellows, or reciprocations of ecstatic love between Krsna and the devotees, if the results are not pure there will be incompatibility.” His purity of purpose discounts any thought Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi was an arbitrary combination. On the same page he says: “Srila Rupa Goswami warns devotees to not commit such incompatibilities in their writings or in their dealings. The presence of such contradictory feelings is called rasa-bhasa.”

It is known that when Sri Krsna is in Dvaraka He is Sri Dvarakadisha. All the Yadus and Pandavas with their extended family members reside there eternally. It is also known from books like Brhad-Bhagavatamrta that in spite of Lord Krsna’s loving exchanges with the Dvaraka-vasis, His optimum mood is that of the Vraja-vasis and the land of Sri Vrndavana. [NOD page 389] states: “….a rasa which is actually prominent may sometimes appear to be manifested in a subordinate way, although its actual position is as the main or prominent loving feeling of a devotee.”

As such the exclusivity of an individual’s relationship with Krsna cannot impinge on another. [TLC page 312] says: “Thus the gopis of Vrndavana do not like to see Krsna as the husband of Rukmini, nor do they address Him as Rukmini-ramana.” These distinctions need to be understood in terms of Krsna’s names and personality. On the same page we find this: “Although the husband of Rukmini and Radha’s Krsna are on the same level in the ordinary sense, still, in the spiritual world, the names indicate different understandings of various aspects of Krsna’s transcendental personality.”

If names are all important, Srila Prabhupada had to be rooted in a solid relationship with Krsna to enable him to unite Sri Partha-sarathi with Srimate Radharani, even if an overlapping of mellows helped to achieve the desired outcome. In [NOD page 383] it is said: “Very often, in addition to one’s regular rasa, there is found the presence of some other rasa, and the mixture of these loving humors is sometimes compatible, or palatable, and sometimes incompatible, or unpalatable.”

In the same context Srila Prabhupada says this: “According to the opinion of all expert devotees, anything that will arouse ecstatic love for Krsna is to be taken as an impetus for transcendental mellow.” [NOD page 399] If such mixtures can sometimes arouse spiritual emotions, we can link this with Srila Prabhupada’s action.

We have to look at the names again. Krsna outside of Vrndavana is Vasudeva Krsna who has unlimited other names befitting His innumerable activities. Srila Prabhupada does not choose any other name but Sri Partha-sarathi. Why? [BG, 1, 15] purport states: “His name is Partha-sarathi because He worked as the charioteer of His friend Arjuna.”

But still, how can Partha-sarathi mix with Radha? This same Partha-sarathi spoke the Bhagavad-gita, synchronizing all the many diverse meanings of the Vedas into a coherent unit which may give Him an aura of aloofness, grandeur, irreproachability and awe. But Srila Prabhupada considered the friendly side of Krsna, which can make unification compatible.

Here are some unyielding clues which tell us what Srila Prabhupada’s inner mood is. While in Kuruksetra the gopis feelingly implored Lord Krsna to return to V4rndavana; [Krsna book pages 702-3] says: “They [gopis] immediately invited Krsna to come back to Vrndavana. This transcendental emotional existence of the gopis is the basic principle of Lord Chaitanya’s teachings. The Ratha-yatra festival observed by Lord Chaitanya is the emotional process of taking Krsna back to Vrndavana.”

In [TLC page 117] on the subject of service to the Lord, Srila Prabhupada writes: “Lord Krsna also confirmed this in the most confidential instruction in Bhagavad-gita, wherein He tells Arjuna:

Manamana bhava mad bhakto
Mad-yaji mam namaskuru
Mam-evaisyasi satyam te
Pratijane priyo ‘si me

“Always think of me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.” [BG 18.65]

We should take special note of what Srila Prabhupada writes next. “Such a direct instruction from Krsna is more important than any Vedic instruction or even regulative principle.” Here Srila Prabhupada is hinting at spontaneous devotion in regards to this verse, giving us a direction. Where is it leading to? Srimate Radharani of course! Sri Partha-sarathi is directing us this way. Perhaps when we study Bhagavad-gita we should do likewise.

Now Srila Prabhupada’s bringing Sri Partha-sarathi to Srimate Radharani is more important than any Vedic instructions or regulative principles. He wants Partha-sarathi to relinquish His charioteer role and whatever chivalry there was and just come to Sri Vrndavana to be with Radha.

To further convince us, we read in the BG purport to the same verse: “These words stress that one should concentrate his mind upon Krsna – the very form with two hands carrying a flute, the bluish boy with a beautiful face and peacock feathers in His hair.” A little later this is said: “One should fix his mind on this original form of Godhead, Krsna. One should not even divert his attention to another form of the Lord.”

In analyzing this combination we have to conclude that there is a mixture, but a favorable one. Out of all the permutations in mixing of the various relationships, only one fits what Srila Prabhupada did. Srila Prabhupada’s inner temperament can be discerned thus: “With the ecstasy of devotion in conjugal love a mixture of laughter and fraternity is compatible.” [NOD page 384] That is, Sri Radha in Madhurya mixing with the fraternal side of Sri Partha-sarathi who advocates spontaneous devotion in verse [BG 18.65]

Furthermore, the mixture is dominated by Srila Prabhupada’s internal mood or permanent ecstasy – that of service to Sri Radha, and is taken as the whole, while the fraternal side of Sri Partha-sarathi moves to the background, or is dissolved as it were, and is considered the part.

Despite all this evidence, if one still feels that what Srila Prabhupada did was rasa-bhasa, or something out of the ordinary, he quotes Srila Jiva Goswami: “Srila Jiva Goswami comments in this connection [of perverted mellows] that such a loving state of mind is not possible for all. It is possible only in the case of the gopis of Vrndavana.” Perhaps this gives a clue to who Srila Prabhupada is. One thing is certain though, he knew these things.

Ys, Kesava Krsna dasa – GRS.

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1 varahanarasimha

well Radha and Krsna is meeting at Kuruksetra it is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam this meeting is described in SB 10 canto 82-83 84 when all the inhabitants met in Kuruksetra (though the full details of Radha meeting Krsna in Kuruksetra is not really given there) The objection some have that Radha-Krsna is generally woshipped like the way thy are in Vrindavan.So Srila Prabhupada introduced something that had never been seen before.Some object and state Srila Prabhupada did not personally name them Radha Parthasarathi , just as some object to Ruknini Dvarakadisha is LA, as they appear to be Radha Krsna, in Dvaraka there was Nava Vrindavan at one point when Krsna missed Vrindavan( that is in the Brhad Bhagavatamrita) Radha and the inhabitants also met in Dvaraka as described in Garga Samhita and there was a Rasa lila there with the queens and the gopis, so what is Rasa Bhasa? But in general ParthaSarathi is not with Sri Radha, but why not glorifie their glorious meeting at Kuruksetra, this is the mood of Ratha yatra after all.
Personally we can appriciate both sides to the issue–

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 23rd, 2007
2 Unregistered

Dear prabhu, Dandavats. The most important question to ask is: did Srila Prabhupada actually name Those Deities? I’ve never seen any thing in writing that speaks to this point. My understanding is that in LA, Srila Prabhupada actually named Their Lordships Sri Sri Radha Krsna. Some other devotees chose to call Them Sri Sri Rukmini Dvarakadisha, because LA was the most opulent temple in the movement at that time. The thinking was that Dvaraka is far more opulent than Vrndavana. Evidently those names stuck. Maybe some prabhus can shed some light on this question. Ys, Lokaguru das

Comment posted by Lokaguru das on May 23rd, 2007
3 Unregistered

I have been told that Srila Prabhupada did in fact name these dieties, Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi. On the other hand it is a fact that the Radha Krsna dieties in Los Angeles were named Rukmini Dvarakadish by Jayatirtha Prabhu as was the yatra, New Dvaraka.
Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur says that when Krsna tells Arjuna,

sarva-dharmān parityajya

mām ekaḿ śaraṇaḿ vraja

ahaḿ tvāḿ sarva-pāpebhyo

mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ

when he says, ” mām ekaḿ śaraṇaḿ vraja”, he begins to feel so much separation from the inhabitants of Vraja that his knees begin to buckle and He almost faints. So Sri Partha-sarathi is feeling intense seperation from Sri Radha and this is the inner meaning of the name of these deities established by Srila Prabhupada.

Comment posted by Raghavendu on May 26th, 2007
4 Hari Sauri dasa

This is from a morning walk in Nellore, S. India on January 7, 1976 — extract from Transcendental Diary Vol 1:

Acyutananda Mahraja asked about two sets of Deities, one within ISKCON and another elsewhere. At our New Delhi center the Deities are called Sri Sri Radha-Partha-sarathi. Since Partha-sarathi means ‘the chariot driver of Arjuna’ he wanted to know how Radharani, who is only present in Vrndavana-lila, could be included when Krsna is in that role.
Prabhupada answered, “When Krsna is Partha-sarathi, Radha is out of Him? Does it mean? Radha krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hladini saktir. When He is fighting, the hladini sakti is there. It is not manifest.”

Your humble servant,
Hari-sauri dasa

Comment posted by Hari Sauri dasa on May 30th, 2007
5 varahanarasimha

My question is still did Srila Prabhupada install Radha Parthasarathi and he must have at least know they would be called this.
Then if the meeting with Radha and Krsna is there at Kuruksetra , it is not the original form of Radha and Krsna ,but an expansion of Sri Radha, Samyogini Radha
but Radha meeting with Partha Sarathi at Kuruksetra is not Rasa Bhasa ,and as such we see nothing wrong with worship of Radha Partha Sarathi

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 30th, 2007
6 varahanarasimha

Prabhuji the answer it does not satisfie the question fully ,actually this causes more confusion so if Krsna is Partha Sarathi and fighting Radha is not there.So you have just defeated that Radha-Krsna can be together, there must be maybe more to Srila Prabhupada’s quote do you mind to kindly check?
Just as when Lord Narasimha fight Hiranyakasipu Laxmi is not present ( she can’t even approach Him ,only Prahlada) Similarly then only Arjuna can be with Krsna, as ParthaSarathi as the name indicates.So how can Radha be with Partha Sarathi? So from a strict Gaudiya vaisnava point it seems Rasabhasa.But how about Partha Sarathi is meeting Radha at Kuruksetra ,yes He is the friend of Arjuna but He is also the life and soul of Radha even at Kuruksetra, so both can be true without being a contradiction

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 30th, 2007
7 Kesava Krsna dasa

Dear prabhus,

The answer Srila Prabhupada gave in Hari Sauri’s quotation is not how Varahanrsmha prabhu understood it. Varahanrsmha wrote: “….so if Krsna is Partha-sarathi and fighting Radha is not there.”

Srila Prabhupada did not say Sri Radha was not there. Rather, he questioned the validity of this idea; “When Krsna is Parha-sarathi, Radha is out of Him?” as given by Acyutananda prabhu. Srila Prabhupada reiterates: “Does it mean?” In other words: ‘How can that be?”

He then says that the Hladini shakti is there though not manifest. We have to understand this in terms of Sri Krsna being Sac-Cid-Ananda. Within His cit potency which consists of samvit, sandhini and hladini, hladini is mentioned bcause Srimate Radharani is the source of hladini. So wherever Sac-cid-ananda Krsna is, so must His energies, including Radha’s hladini, albeit not overtly manifest.

There was also the mention of ‘Samyogini’ Radha. If this referral is accepted then it equates with the aspect of Radha which experiences seperation from Krsna - or to be more technical - the part of Radha who experiences the - prakata - or visible aspect of Krsna’s pastimes here on earth.

Whichever way we see this divine combination, it is very deep, and one that Srila Prabhupada did do suit his internal aptitude, though not fullt comprehensible. Much more information can arise out of this subject by relating to the gopi’s meeting with Krsna at Kuruksetra and the preceding seperation from Krsna in Vrndavana, which all serve to give added meanings to this affair.

The main point is however, Srimate Radarani is always with Krsna, latently, or manifestly. Just as Krsna has unlimited expansions, so does Radha.

Ys, Kesava Krsna dasa.

Comment posted by Kesava Krsna dasa on May 30th, 2007
8 varahanarasimha

actually I got confused by the last sentence of Hari Sauri Prabhus statement of Srila Prabhupada:

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 31st, 2007
9 varahanarasimha

“Radha krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hladini saktir. When He is fighting, the hladini sakti is there. It is not manifest”

I was confused by the last part “It is not manifest” But though Radha appears to not be with Partha Sarathi ,She is ,that is the point Srila Prabhupada is making.
However Vasudeva Krsna’s association with Radha happens in Vrindavan and outside of Vrindavan it is the expanded form of Radha, this is why I mentioned Samyogini Radha. Vrndavanam parityajya padam ekam na gacchati – Krsna is always in Vrndavana and so is Radha.The potency of Hladini sakti is mainly manifest in Vrindavan for Krsna’s pastimes there, outside of Vrindavan Hladini Sakti Sri Radha manifests as Viyogni Radha and Samyogini Radha.Since Radharani was meeting Krsna at Kuruksetra that is is Her Samyogini form and Krsna’s samyogini form (different from his Vasudeva expansion) So Radha and Krsna yes-it is a bit techinal for those who like to understand the full siddhanta on this matter.Radha and Krsna never takes a step outside of Vrindavan, if they do it is their expanded form.So those who object have this in mind , but they are concerned others will not understand and see Rasabhasa.The conclusion is Radha and Krsna can worshipped at Kuruksetra when they meet. If Krsna is there with Arjuna only Radha is not manifest. But we are interested in Radha meeting Krsna at Kuruksetra so that is why Radha Parthasarathi is worshipped.But it is controversial for strict Gaudiya vaisnavas as this has never been done before, and more controversial because did Srila Prabhupada actually give them this name? If he did ok.Now in New Dvaraka , Jayatirtha gave the name Rukmini Dvaradisha- but we see them as Radha Krsna– Gaudiya vaisnavas don’t worship Rukmini Dvarakadisha

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 31st, 2007
10 varahanarasimha

when I say Rukmini Dvarakdisha is not worshipped by Gaudiya vaisanvas I mean in their Archa Vigraha form.

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 31st, 2007
11 varahanarasimha

Actually Radha and Krsna is only worshipped in their mood in Vrindavan, this is our sampradaya, Radha and Krsna never leaves Vrindavan, I see all these deities as Radha Krsna in Vrindavan.So what others call them does not matter to me, The mood of Radha Partha Sarathi is best served in the mood of Jagannath ,Baladeva and Subhadra- where the mood of samyogini Radha- Krsna, that is when they meet like at Kuruksetra or when there is separation Viyogini Radha Krsna.This is Lord Caitanyas mood in Puri also- the separation of Radha from Krsna..it is a very deep and confidential matter that Srila Prabhupada also has described in the pages of Srimad Bhagavatam, and especially in his purports in the Antya lila of CC. But lets first get to this point a bit later and first renouce all material desires and material hopes for happiness in this rotten material world. (Gita 8.15)

Comment posted by varahanarasimha on May 31st, 2007
12 Damana Krishna dasa

When Narasimhadeva was fighting Hiranyakashipu then Lakshmi was still present as Srivatsa sign. This we should not forget. Krishna is never separated from his pleasure potency but this may not be visible to our limited eyes. Srila Prabhupada had perfect vision of Krishna’s pastimes and we may come up with so much of theoretical knowledge about rasa and all higher level of rasa tattva but did we cross the material existence, do we have transcendental senses? What about if Radharani is manifested as pleasure potency when Krishna is serving his friend Arjuna as driver. Isn’t it that Radharani is giving pleasure to Krishna and all other pleasure Krishna is experiencing because of Radharani’s presence as His pleasure potency. Can we ever separate Krishna’s pleasure potency from Him as well as can we separate heat from fire? It would be really interesting what SP would comment on this topic.

Comment posted by Damana Krishna dasa on July 24th, 2007
13 pustakrishna

Dandavat Prabhus. I want to share another fact with you. None other than Srila Rupa Goswami (Rupa Manjari) composed the song daily sung by Srila Prabhupad: Jaya Radha Madhava… We know that Madhava is a name for the Husband of the Goddess of Fortune. Thus, Madhava is not a name of Krishna in Vrindaban, although He is in the heart of Sri Radha and the Brajabasis, love in separation. Thus, Srila Rupa Goswami is giving us the truth, that love in separation surpasses love in union. Union in separation. I have heard that some unscrupulous foolish lower vaishnavas have criticized Srila Prabhupad over the naming of Dieties such as Sri Sri Radha Parthasarathi. Such fools are also thus criticizing Srila Rupa Goswami, and hence they are not to be considered as favored by Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. They think that intimacy in union is supreme, and they are to be understood as self-centric sahajiyas. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu personally gave his example of the superiority of union in separation as the highest sweetest and most desirable conception of love of God. This issue can be easily understood in this way. And, those who might criticize Srila Prabhupad over this, woe to them and unfortunate the individuals who take to following such misguided sahajiyas. My respects to those who have taken the dust of Srila Prabhupad upon their heads. Pusta Krishna das

Comment posted by pustakrishna on May 17th, 2008
14 Kesava Krsna dasa

Dear Pusta Krsna prabhu,

This is a really nice observation. In effect it is like saying this song ‘Jaya Radha Madhava…’ is a song of seperation, especially as Srila Prabhupada experienced it. I am sure it would be very intriguing to know why Srila Prabhupada installed Sri Sri Radha Madhava in Sri Mayapura dhama. I know a little research can explain Srila Prabhupada’s internal reasons for doing so.

Another example to bolster the vipralambha case, is where in the often cited story of Srimate Radharani being embraced by Krishna - which is an example of sambhoga (meeting) - yet She feels ‘fearful’, or rather, still relishes the apparent fear of seperation from Krishna. even while being embraced in union. This indicates how this feeling helps to heighten the experience of union with Krishna. Since Srimate Radharani is the most adept at relishing spiritual mellows, this ’seperation’ feeling was certainly intentional.

There are many examples to illustrate this mood, even with Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. But to highlight these in relation to Srila Prabhupada, and his reasons for doing certain things, can be a way of increasing his glories. There is much to be said about his inner moods, and how he manifested his desires can be a reflection of them. But there is no doubt, that there was a special connection with Srila Rupa Goswami.

Thank you, ys, Kesava Krsna dasa.

Comment posted by Kesava Krsna dasa on May 17th, 2008
15 Madhavananda Das (Orissa)

Srila Prabhupada on Rukmini Dwarkadish

Thank you Keshava Krishna Prabhu, what a nice and thoughtful article!

Whether the name Rukmini Dwarkadish was given by Srila Prabhupada or by Jayatirtha Prabhu, it doesn’t seem clear. However it’s an irrefutable fact that in a number of letters and discussions Srila Prabhupada addressed the deities in ISKCON Los Angeles as Rukmini Dwarkadish. If he didn’t approve of the name, he certainly didn’t indicate it. I’m pasting a few examples below:

It is very encouraging to hear the arrangement you are making for worship of Their Lordships Sri Dvarakadhisa and Rukmini. Please do it very nicely and I shall be glad to see the completed result.
– Letter to: Karandhara, 29 June, 1973

I am in due receipt of your card dated October 25, 1975 along with the beautiful photographs of Sri Sri Rukmini-Dvarakadhisa of New Dvaraka. So do it nicely.
– Letter to Jayatirtha, Manjuali, 10 November 1975

Thank you very much for the pictures of Rukmini Dvarakadhisa. They are very nice.
– Letter to Ramesvara, 24 November 1976

There are also a number of conversations with Srila Prabhupada where the Rukmini Dwarkadish are mentioned and no where does Srila Prabhupada protest against their names. The following are a few examples:

* Evening Darsana — February 24, 1977, Mayapura

* Room Conversation 13 October 1977

* Room Conversation – 13 October 1977

* Room Conversation 13-14 November 1977

The following quote is a remembrance from Dwarkadish Prabhu that was printed in a 1968 article he wrote for BTG called, “Growing Up with Krishna”:

Srila Prabhupada said the Los Angeles temple should be known as New Dvaraka, after Lord Krsna’s capital city of Dvaraka, on the eastern coast of India. The presiding Deities of New Dvaraka he named Dvarakadhisa (the ruler of Dvaraka) and Rukmini (Krsna’s eternal consort in Dvaraka). When someone asked Srila Prabhupada what to name me, Srila Prabhupada paused for a moment and replied, “We shall name him Dvarakadhisa dasa.”

I hope that this collection of statements may be of some use for the devotees.

Vaishnava kripa prarthi,
Madhavananda Das

Comment posted by Madhavananda Das (Orissa) on May 20th, 2008
16 Madhavananda Das (Orissa)

Radha Madhava

Aside from Rupa Goswami’s famous song: “radhe jaya jaya madhava dayite”, he also composed the book, “Lalita Madhava”. Similarly there are a number instances where our previous acaryas have called Vrindavan Krishna, “Madhava”. One of which of course is Bhaktivinode Thakur’s song, “jaya radha madhava kunja bihari”, that Srila Prabhupada would daily sing.
However, in all fairness I don’t know if these can be accepted as evidence of our acaryas addressing Vrindavan Krishna with non-Vrindavan names. “Ma” can refer to the goddess of fortune Laksmi Devi, in connection with the suffix “dhava” it refers to the husband of Laksmi. However, the word also has other meanings, one or more of which may be what our acaryas intended.
Srila Sanatan Goswami has commented on the name Madhava in his purport to Bhagavatam 10.15.2, as follows (BBT translation):

Madhava normally indicates Krsna to be “the Lord, who is the consort of the goddess of fortune, Laksmi.” This name also implies that Lord Krsna descended in the dynasty of Madhu. Since the spring season is also known as Madhava, it is understood that as soon as Lord Krsna entered the Vrndavana forest, it automatically exhibited all the opulences of spring, becoming filled with flowers, breezes and a celestial atmosphere. Another reason Lord Krsna is known as Madhava is that He enjoys His pastimes in madhu, the taste of conjugal love.

By the way if anyone would like to have darshan of the original family deities of Radha Madhava that were worshiped by Srila Thakur Bhaktivinode, you can do so at our ISKCON nama-hatta in Kendrapara Orissa. There was also an article published about their recent reappearance (after being lost for over 50 years) in BTG in the May/June 2001 issue

Comment posted by Madhavananda Das (Orissa) on May 21st, 2008
17 Madhavananda Das (Orissa)

Rukmini-Dwarkadish/Radha-Krishna

Payonidhi Prabhu has mentioned (comment #9) something about samyogini and viyogini Radha. Including hladini, these are three saktis, which some devotees have tried to describe as being “expansions of Radha”. This topic is very interesting, and significant for the subject before us.

The only place I have seen this discussed is in, “Sanatkumar Samhita”, texts 303 to 313. (The same verses are quoted by Srila Dhyanachandra Goswami, in his “Sri Gaura-govinda-arcana Smarana Paddhati”, in texts 130 to 140). Several times I’ve heard devotees describing these three as “expansions” or “separated incarnations” of Srimati Radharani. However, that seems to be an incorrect assumption.

Lord Sadashiva describes these three saktis to Narada Muni, in Sanatkumar Samhita (text 303):

śaktih samyoginī kāmā vama śaktir viyoginī
hlādinī kīrtidā-putri caivaṁ rādhā trayaṁ vraje

“In Vraja, Srimati Radharani is the manifestation of three potencies: The samyoginī-śakti, viyoginī-śakti and hlādinī-śakti.”

(Note: The samyoginī-śakti arranges Radha and Krishna’s pastimes of union, whereas the viyoginī-śakti arranges external separation between the divine couple. The hlādinī-śakti is the Lord’s internal pleasure giving potency.)

In the verses following the above, Sadhashiva further describes these three as:

samyoginī-śakti — also known as Kama Radha

viyoginī-śakti — also known as Vama Radha

hlādinī-śakti — also known as Kirtida-putri

I spoke a few years ago with an elderly vaishnava and leading Sanskrit scholar in Orissa about this topic. This professor friend laughed when he heard that some people were citing this verse as an example of separated expansions of Radha. He told me that these verses are not speaking about Radha’s expansions; rather they are speaking about three energetic aspects of Radha. If you read the context where this discussion comes in Sanatkumar Samhita, this becomes clear. It’s speaking about different moods of Radhika, nowhere in that discussion is there any mention of expansions. Radhika’s expansions are described in Cc. adi 4.74–81: the Laksmis in Vaikuntha, the queens in Dwarka and the gopis of Vraja are respectively Radha’s vaibhava-vilāsa, vaibhava-prakāśa, and kāya-vyūha-rūpa manifestations.

Continued below

Comment posted by Madhavananda Das (Orissa) on May 21st, 2008
18 Madhavananda Das (Orissa)

Rukmini-Dwarkadish/Radha-Krishna Continued

Understanding that Vama Radha, or her viyoginī-śakti mood, is directly Radha is important if we consider Rupa Goswami’s presentation in “Lalita Madhava” of the identities of Satyabhama, Rukmini and Dwarkadish Krishna. In a Bhagavatam class he gave in Los Angeles, our revered spiritual master Sri Srimad Gour Govinda Swami explained this story from “Lalita Madhava”. He said that Rupa Goswami describes that although it appeared to be Dwarka, the Nava Vrindavan garden therein was actually Vrindavan, and although Krishna appeared there as Dwarkadish with his consorts Rukmini and Satyabhama, in actuality they were directly Nandanandan Vrindavan Krishna, along with Candravali and Radharani — not expansions. Rupa Goswami says that although it appeared that Radha and Krishna had left Vrindavan, the Dwarka in the drama “Lalita Madhava” was actually Vrindavan. Their appearing to leave and be in Dwarka was only a dream organized by Yogamaya Devi. In this way Gour Govinda Maharaja indicated that if we consider them to be like the Radha and Krishna of “Lalita Madhava”, there is no rasa-bhasa or incorrect mellow in addressing the deities in ISKCON Los Angeles as Rukmini Dwarkadish.

A final note: This is a very intimate and elevated topic. Much more can be said about it, however I don’t think this is a proper forum. If devotees are interested I suggest that they read Srila Gour Govinda Maharaja’s book, “Mathura Meets Vrindavan”. In particular the last chapter titled, “Krishna Never Leaves Vrindavan”. Therein Maharaja gives an explanation of this pastime from “Lalita Madhava”.

Some excerpts and artwork from “Mathura Meets Vrindavan” can be seen here:

http://www.gopaljiu.org/Public.....al/MMV.htm

Vaishnava kripa prarthi,
Madhavananda Das

Comment posted by Madhavananda Das (Orissa) on May 21st, 2008
19 Kesava Krsna dasa

Dear Madhavananda prabhu,

Thank you for the enlightening input. It shows how, in the case of Sri Sri Rukmini Dvarakadisha, all the essential background information, as you illustrated with words by Srila Gaura Govinda Maharaja, make up the whole picture, and everything falls into place with regard to the internal reasons Srila Prabhupada invitied them.

With this information, we learn how in fact, Sri Sri Rukmini Dvarakisha are a facet of a variation in the mood of Sri Sri Radha Krishna. In fact, it ties in quite consistently with Sri Sri Radha Partha-sarathi worship, as the background knowledge is similar, though the circumstances were different.

I think that by now, those who harboured some doubt about Srila Prabhupada’s reasons for allowing these deities to be worshipped, thinking them somewhat whimsical, or not too well in informed about the finer points of rasa, will see how really knowledgable he was, and furthermore, relished these variations. But it requires the mercy of Sri Sri Guru and Gauranga to fully comprehend such things, and appreciate. In other words, there is much, much more to Srila Prabhupada than he is given credit for, according to normal vision.

Ys, Kesava Krsna dasa.

Comment posted by Kesava Krsna dasa on May 21st, 2008

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