Sriman Sadaputa Prabhu: A saint among scientists; a scientist among saints
Editor’s note: To read this article properly formatted please click here
By Sthita-dhi-muni dasa & Krishna-kripa dasa
March 31, 2011
Please accept my humble obeisances. All glories to Srila Prabhupada.
A number of the devotees in Alachua who worked closely with Sadaputa Prabhu, especially since he moved here in the early 1990s, have in cooperation with Sadaputa’s wife, collected and organized his papers so to make them available to future researchers. We are working under the auspices of the GBC BI Committee and have already sent an initial digital collection to Hari Sauri Prabhu and the Bhaktivedanta Research Center in Kolkata for use by the TOVP-Mayapura project. Also in the works is a Sadaputa Prabhu memorial website to be coordinated with the Krishna.com team, where these materials will be made available in a digital research library format.
In the course of our collecting, we were able to produce this short biographical sketch highlighting Sadaputa’s scientific and devotional accomplishments. We primarily used his professional name, Richard L. Thompson, which Sadaputa utilized for his devotional books and scientific papers. In contrast, he wrote nearly 40 BTG essays as Sadaputa dasa.
Any and all feedback, as well as additional information about devotional experiences with Sadaputa Prabhu, will be most appreciated. Please contact Krishna-kripa dasa at: email@example.com. As many of you know, Krishna-kripa served as Sadaputa Prabhu’s research assistant for nearly twenty years since their days in San Diego.
Sthita-dhi-muni dasa & Krishna-kripa dasa
Richard L. Thompson [Sadaputa Dasa] (February 4, 1947–September 18, 2008) was a mathematician, scientist, philosopher, researcher of ancient cosmology, author, and devoted practitioner of bhakti-yoga. He was born in Binghamton, New York, and received a B.S. in mathematics and physics from State University of New York at Binghamton in 1969. He earned his M.A. in mathematics the following year at Syracuse University. In 1974, Thompson received his Ph.D. from Cornell University, where he specialized in probability theory and statistical mechanics. During this time he found inspiration in the philosophy of Bhagavad-gita, and became an initiated disciple of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, founder-acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement.
In his professional career, Thompson pursued research in quantum theory and mathematical biology, as well as NASA-funded research in satellite remote sensing. He produced nearly two-dozen peer reviewed scientific papers and co-authored a college textbook on computer modeling of biological systems. Thompson also worked as a post-doctoral fellow at Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, and as a research fellow and staff scientist at the La Jolla Institute in San Diego.
Thompson was a founding member of the scientific branch of ISKCON, the Bhaktivedanta Institute, where he published over fourteen technical papers on the study of the relationship between science and Vedanta. He also contributed over forty essays for a broad audience in Back to Godhead, “the magazine of the Hare Krishna movement.” Thompson extensively investigated ancient Indian astronomy, cosmology, and spirituality, and developed multimedia expositions on these topics. He wrote eight books on subjects ranging from consciousness to archeology and ancient astronomy.
Education and Early Career:
Richard Leslie Thompson was born in Binghamton, NY on February 4, 1947. He received a B.S. in mathematics and physics at the State University of New York at Binghamton in 1969. In 1970 he earned an M.A. in mathematics from Syracuse University, and later received a National Science Fellowship.
In 1974, Thompson completed his Ph.D. at Cornell University, where he specialized in probability theory and statistical mechanics. Thompson’s dissertation, Equilibrium States of Thin Energy Shells, was published in the Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 150,i for being “correct, new and significant” and “of sufficient interest to a substantial number of mathematicians.”ii The work included the Hare Krishna mantra printed on the dedication page. Thompson presented a paper on his research, “Information and Random Automata,” at the Annual Meetings of the American Mathematical Society in 1979, held in Biloxi, Mississippi (meeting #763).
Thompson was one of the founding members of the Bhaktivedanta Institute (BI), initially established in 1975 under the directorship of Dr. T. D. Singh (Bhaktiswarupa Damodara Maharaja). He wrote many of the Institute’s early monographs and essays on the topics of consciousness, archeology, and cosmology. Thompson presented papers at the BI’s first conference held in Vrindavana, India (1977). He also presented a paper, “God and the Laws of Physics”iii at Bhaktivedanta Institute’s “World Congress of the Synthesis of Science and Religion” held in Mumbai (1986), and “A Trans-Temporal Approach to Mind-Brain Interaction,” at BI’s “The Study of Consciousness Within Science” conference (1990) hosted at the University of San Francisco.
In 1984, Thompson served as senior editor for the first edition of a Bhaktivedanta Institute project titled, Origins: Higher Dimensions in Science. Under his Vaisnava name, Sadaputa dasa, Thompson is also listed as senior researcher, with Madhavendra Puri dasa (Stephen Bernath) as assistant. Drutakarma dasa (Michael Cremo) and Bhutatma dasa (Austin Gordon, Ph.D.), contributed as authors along with Thompson. The editors presented the project as a non-technical review of current scientific theories of the origin of the universe, the origin of living organisms, and the nature of the conscious self. Our basic finding is that the reductionistic world view of modern science is by no means solidly established; we therefore outline an alternative view in which the world is understood to be only partially quantifiable and in which both purpose and spiritual qualities are granted existence.iv
In 1993, Thompson spoke at the 100th anniversary conference of the Chicago Parliament of World’s Religions on “The Relation Between Science and Religion: The Contribution of Gaudiya Vaisnavism.”v Thompson printed the talk as a BI essay with the title, “Reflections on the Relationship Between Religion and Modern Rationalism.” It was similarly published as “Rational ‘Mythology’” in BTG 28.1 (1994) and in God & Science, (Thompson, 2004). Thompson presented another paper, “Anomalous Textual Artifacts in Archeo-astronomy,” at the 1996 World Association of Vedic Studies (WAVES) conference held in Atlanta.vi
Thompson published two BI themed papers in peer reviewed alternative science journals: “Numerical Analysis and Theoretical Modeling Of Causal Effects of Conscious Intention” (1991) in Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine,vii and “Planetary Diameters in the Surya-Siddhanta” (1997) in Journal of Scientific Exploration.viii Thompson commented that a number of his professional scientific papers also explored themes in relation to his BI research.
Christopher Beetle (Krishna Kripa dasa), a computer science graduate of Brown University, worked with Thompson as a Bhaktivedanta Institute research associate and production assistant, between 1988 and 2004.
During the 1980s, Dr. Thompson pursued research in quantum physics and mathematical biology at the State University of New York at Binghamton, publishing numerous papers with Dr. Narendra S. Goel, of SUNY’s Department of Systems Science at the Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering. Over the next two decades Goel and Thompson also co-authored NASA-funded research papers on satellite remote sensing.ix
Thompson taught courses in image processing and advance remote sensing at SUNY in the early 1980s. Thompson also served as a post-doctoral fellow under Brian Josephson at Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge from 1984-1985, followed by two years as a research fellow and staff scientist at the La Jolla Institute, Division of Applied Nonlinear Problems, in California.
Goel and Thompson’s essay on “Movable Finite Automata: A New Tool for Computer Modeling of Living Systems,” was published in The Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems (ALife ’87) held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.x The conference was “jointly sponsored by the Center for Nonlinear Studies [at Los Alamos National Laboratory], the Santa Fe Institute, and Apple Computer, Inc.” that “brought together 160 computer scientists, biologists, physicists, anthropologists . . . all of whom shared a common interest in the simulation and synthesis of living systems.” The conference organizers stated Goel and Thompson’s paper “describes a tool for modeling molecular self-organization” that among other advantages, “can help explain the manner in which the genotype can control the specific sequential developmental history of the phenotype.”xi Thompson is additionally listed on the Second Artificial Life Workshop (February 5-9, 1990) Tuesday evening schedule as demonstrating “A Self-Assembly Model of a Bacterial Flagella Motor”.
Goel and Thompson also presented two papers for the International Symposium on Organizational Constraints on the Dynamics of Evolution, sponsored by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1987 in Budapest. Under the heading “Biological automata models and evolution”, the papers were individually titled, “I: The role of computer modeling in theories of evolution and the origins of life,”xii and “II: The evolution of macromolecular machinery.”xiii The celebrated British theoretical evolutionary biologist and co-editor of the conference proceedings, John Maynard Smith, wrote in the his “Concluding Remarks”:
For me, one of the high spots of the conference was the account by Thompson and Goel of their biological automata models. It was not only that I was envious of their skill at programming. More important was their demonstration of the process of “self-organization”. If you can program something, then you can be confident that the mechanisms you propose can actually generate the results you claim, and that is what they have done. Some thirty years ago, I drew a distinction between two kinds of developmental process, which I called “jigsaws” and “penny whistles”. By a molecular jigsaw I had in mind a structure whose final shape depended on the shapes of the molecules that composed it, and which would, in a sense, assemble itself, given that the right molecules were provided (perhaps in the right relative amounts, and in the right order). It is this kind of process that Thompson and Goel have simulated, with triumphant success.xiv
In a personal recollection, Thompson commented that Smith “neglects to mention the anti-evolutionary content of one of these papers, but he commented favorably on this in private conversation. Of course, he continued to champion evolution.”xv
In 1988, Goel and Thompson published a college textbook, Computer Simulations of Self-Organization in Biological Systems, showing principles and techniques of biological modeling, and examples of biological self-organization and evolution.xvi J. H. Parish, a biochemist at the University of Leeds, wrote in a review in Biochemical Education, “the authors are at their best in various topics from cell biology to evolution. . . . I strongly recommend this book as a novel, instructive, and challenging introduction to MFA [Movable Finite Automata] applications.”xvii
Mechanistic and Nonmechanistic Science:
In 1981, Thompson wrote Mechanistic and Nonmechanistic Science: An Investigation Into the Nature of Consciousness and Form. In the book, Thompson discussed how the mechanistic theories dominating modern science have difficulty explaining phenomena like consciousness, complex biological form, and inspiration, and how these disparate phenomena could be unified through engaging the non-mechanistic analytical paradigms offered in the Bhagavad-gita.
In particular, two Nobel Prize winners offered favorable reviews:
“I liked the third chapter of Mechanistic and Nonmechanistic Science very much. In particular it acquainted me some with the Bhagavad-gita. I learned that the basic philosophical ideas of this on ‘existence’ are virtually identical with those which quantum mechanics lead me to.”—Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963)
“In Mechanistic and Nonmechanistic Science, Dr. Thompson makes a number of cogent arguments against the usual scientific picture of life and evolution (which do not accept the existence of higher or subtler levels of organization). He also presents a clear alternative model. I think it is an important book, which would be of interest to many people.”—Brian Josephson (Physics 1973)xviii
In a lengthy review published in Zygon: The Journal of Religion and Science, Granville C. Henry, a Professor of Mathematics and Philosophy at Claremont McKenna College, described the attractive quality of this book is that Thompson writes as a scientist about science with a clarity, accuracy, and objectivity that should engender respect both from scientists and from those whose religious persuasions are other than his own. . . . Scientists reading the book need not feel betrayed by Thompson, for he shows throughout both a respect and love for good science. Because he loves science, he is pained by its contradictions and seeks its intelligibility in a larger context….
On balance, I think this book is a very valuable addition to the current literature in science and religion. Thompson’s choice of examples from science that seem to upset contemporary scientific paradigms is superb. They are all relevant. They are carefully explained and in one book. Many come from quite recent developments (including punctuated equilibrium model of evolution by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould) which I have not outlined in this review. These examples form test cases that must be applied to any philosophy of religion that claims adequacy to represent science. The process theologian or Thomist, for example, can examine how process philosophy or Thomism can handle the puzzles and anomalies arising in science that seem to discredit current scientific explanation, as well as compare the success of such philosophies with one derived from the Bhagavad-gita.xix
Thompson published Vedic Cosmography and Astronomy in 1989, his first book to address the apparent conflict between a model of the universe presented in the Fifth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam, and the universe as understood through the empirical methodology of modern science. In a thorough, straightforward analysis accessible to a broad audience, Thompson explained how “the Fifth Canto’s cosmology and the accounts of the solar system found in the jyotisa-sastras [corresponding to modern astronomy] are not contradictory, but that they in fact represent distinct yet mutually consistent ways of comprehending a universe with important features beyond the range of ordinary sense perception.”
Over the next decade Thompson worked with the Mayapur planetarium project, developing museum concepts and other materials. During this period, Thompson wrote Mysteries of the Sacred Universe along with an interactive companion CD. Thompson argued a closer examination of the cosmological descriptions found in the Bhagavata Purana revealed “unexpected depths of knowledge in ancient cosmology,” and a “sophisticated system with multiple levels of meaning that encode at least four different astronomical, geographical, and spiritual world models.” Thompson presented evidence that ancient astronomers “expressed exact knowledge in apparently mythological terms,” and that “the spiritual dimension was integrated into ancient Indian cosmology.” Dr. Subhash Kak, currently Regents Professor and Head of the Department of Computer Science at Oklahoma State University, described the work as “a very original book” representing “an important advance in the understanding of the cosmology described in the famed Bhagavata Purana of India.”xx Thompson further produced two movies containing visual graphics describing the material, on a companion DVD.
During this period, Thompson developed a number of museum exhibit concepts and proposals for the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium and Glory of India projects, as well as a Vedic Planetarium and Museum proposal for the Washington, D.C. area. Along with developing concepts for planetarium shows, Thompson produced an interactive CD, Journey to the Higher Planets, a proposal for a comprehensive museum experience of 40 panel exhibits, scripts and visual material for 3 kiosk movies, as well as a feature 40 minute integrated movie experience.
As part of these projects, Thompson researched historical evidence indicating that the yojana, the traditional South Asian unit of distance, is based on a degree of the Earth’s latitude. He also discovered astronomical evidence confirming the traditional date of the Kali-yuga. Thompson further published a paper in the peer reviewed alternative science journal, Journal of Scientific Exploration, titled “Planetary Diameters in the Surya-Siddhanta,” describing how traditional astronomical texts offered “surprisingly accurate calculations” corresponding to modern norms. The JSE offers downloads of the article at no charge.xxi
In 1993 Thompson and Michael Cremo (Drutakarma das) co-authored Forbidden Archeology, a provocative investigation of anomalous archeological evidence involving human antiquity. The Journal of Field Archeology described the work as combining “a vast amount of both accepted and controversial evidence from the archaeological record with sociological, philosophical, and historical critiques of the scientific method to challenge existing views and expose the suppression of information concerning history and human origins.”xxii
In a lengthy review in The British Journal of the History of Science, Tim Murray described Forbidden Archeology as “a book about belief” that “Vedic literature got it right long before the advent of archaeological inquiry.” Murray also suggested the work offered, “historian[s] of archaeology with a useful compendium of case studies in the history of sociology of scientific knowledge, which can be used to foster debate within archaeology about how to describe the epistemology of one’s discipline.”xxiii
In a severely critical review published in Skeptic magazine, Bradley Lepper characterized Forbidden Archeology as “frustrating because it mixes together a genuine contribution to our understanding of the history of archaeology and paleoanthropology with a bewildering mass of absurd claims and an audaciously distorted review of the current state of paleoanthropology.” Nonetheless, Lepper admitted, “Cremo and Thompson are quite right about the extreme conservatism of many archaeologists and physical anthropologists.”xxiv
Though Meera Nanda, a noted historian and philosopher of science, described Thompson and Cremo as “the intellectual force driving Vedic creationism” xxv, Thompson’s views appear complex. C. Mackenzie Brown, author of an essay in Zygon, “Hindu and Christian Creationism: ‘Transposed Passages’ in the Geological Book of Life,” referred to a correspondence between Thompson and himself as considering if a Vedic analysis insists upon an anti-Darwinian simultaneous creation of all species is perhaps open to question. . . . Thompson (2000) affirms that Prabhupada [Iskcon’s founder/acarya] sometimes insisted on simultaneous creation but at other times allowed for “the possibility of successive creations.” . . . Thompson asserts that the Vedic views of creation/development . . . are consequently complex . . .xxvi
At times Prabhupada stated Vedic concepts of “species” differed from those of modern science. In addition, a Vedic perspective would not limit itself exclusively to considering living systems on Earth. Prabhupada also emphasized the evolution of consciousness through different bodily forms as the important concern. For these and many reasons, Vedic metaphysics suggests a complexity outside the norm of contemporary “creation/development” debates.xxvii
Thompson’s coauthor, Michael Cremo, continues to promote Forbidden Archeology, along with related topics.
In 1994, Thompson published Alien Identities: Ancient Insights into Modern UFO Phenomena, a work Thompson described as “a comparative study of UFO literature and the Vedic literature of India” suggesting surprising parallels lending more credence to both than is usually offered to either. Berthold E. Schwarz, M.D., psychiatrist and author of UFO Dynamics, found the work “stimulating, well organized, and an encyclopedic smorgasbord of UFO data and ancient Indian counterparts.”xxviii
In 2003, Thompson published Maya, the World As Virtual Reality, where he explored “the idea of virtual reality as a metaphor for our situation as conscious beings . . . provides a framework in which the relation between consciousness and physical reality can be systematically explored.” Thompson argued that in the “Indian tradition, the Sanskrit word maya refers to the power to run vast simulations of virtual worlds. This book can be seen as a preliminary exploration of the idea of maya, or virtual reality, as a scientific hypothesis.” Dr. Gary E. Schwartz, Director of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health and professor of Psychology, Medicine, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Surgery at the University of Arizona, described Thompson’s book as weaving “a tapestry of theory and research integrating body, mind, and spirit that can be understood by scientists and laymen alike. A joy to read and ponder.”xxix
In 2004, Thompson published God and Science, a collection of over twenty essays he had written from 1986 to 2000. Thompson introduced the collection by asking:
What is the relationship between science and religion? Some see it as one of inevitable conflict, others see it as harmonious, and still others see differences that they hope to reconcile. For many years, I have been one of the latter. I have felt that science has fundamentally challenged the very roots of religion, but that this challenge can be answered in a way that agrees with basic scientific and religious principles. Framing such answers was the purpose of the essays in this book. However, on reviewing these essays, I have come to realize another potential relationship between religion and science. Both religion and science can cross fertilize one another with inspiring new ideas that may ultimately culminate in a synthesis that goes beyond our understanding of either science or religion.xxx
Sheldon R. Isenberg, associate professor and former chair of the Department of Religion, University of Florida, wrote in the Foreword to the book:
Thompson’s ability to explain clearly very difficult concepts of traditional and contemporary physics and cosmology is extraordinary. . . . His erudition, the elegance of his prose, and his deep understanding of traditional and contemporary science give a different kind of credibility to the knowledge and wisdom of our intellectual and spiritual ancestors, east and west, which they encoded into their legends, myths, and rituals. One begins to suspect that we have forgotten at least as much as we’ve discovered.xxxi
Thompson passed away at his home in Alachua, Florida, on September 18, 2008. At the time he was working on exhibit proposals for the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium.
To read the original document of the bibliography please click here
Bibliography of Richard L. Thompson (Sadaputa dasa)
(cited by year of publication)
Peer reviewed scientific papers and other professional works:
Thompson, R. L. “Open Mappings and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.” Mathematics Magazine 43 No. 1 (1970): 39-40.
Thompson, Richard Leslie. “Equilibrium States of Thin Energy Shells.” Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society Number 150. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1974.
Thompson, Richard. “A Measure of Shared Information in Classes of Patterns.” Pattern Recognition 12 (1980): 369-379.
Goel, N.S. and R. L. Thompson. “Estimation of Agronomic Variables using Spectral Signatures,” Proc. 2nd Int. Coll. on Spectral Signatures of Objects in Remote Sensing. Bordeaux, France, Sep. 1983. Les Colloques de l’INRA 23 (1984): 45-53.
Goel, Narendra S., Donald E. Strebel, and Richard L. Thompson. “Inversion of Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Models for Estimating Agronomic Variables. II. Use of Angle Transforms and Error Analysis as Illustrated by Suits’ Model.” Remote Sensing of Environment 14 (1984): 77–111.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. “Inversion of Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Models for Estimating Agronomic Variables. III. Estimation Using Only Canopy Reflectance Data as Illustrated by the Suits Model.” Remote Sensing of Environment 15 (1984): 237–253.
__________. “Inversion of Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Models for Estimating Agronomic Variables. IV. Total Inversion of the SAIL Model.” Remote Sensing of Environment 15 (1984): 237–253.
__________. “Inversion of Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Models for Estimating Agronomic Variables. V. Estimation of Leaf Area Index and Average Leaf Angle Using Measured Canopy Reflectances.” Remote Sensing of Environment 16 (1984): 69–85.
Thompson, Richard. “A Stochastic Model of Sedimentation.” Journal of Mathematical Geology 16 (1984): 753–778.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. “Optimal solar/viewing geometry for an accurate estimation of leaf area index and leaf angle distribution from bi-directional canopy reflectance data.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 6 (1985): 1493-1520.
Thompson, Richard L. and Narendra S. Goel. “A Simulation of T4 Bacteriophage Assembly and Operation.” Biosystems 18 (1985): 23–45.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. “Organization of Biological Systems: Some Principles and Models,” International Review of Cytology 103 (1986): 1–88.
Goel, Narendra S., Carlos F. Doggenweiler and Richard L. Thompson. “Simulation of Cellular Compaction and Internalization in Mammalian Embryo Development as Driven by Minimization of Surface Energy.” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 48 (1986): 167–187.
Goel, Narendra S., and Richard Thompson. “Microcomputer Modeling of Biological Systems.” The World & I (July, 1987): 162–173.
Lewis III, Harold W., Narendra S. Goel and Richard L. Thompson. “Simulation of Cellular Compaction and Internalization in Mammalian Embryo Development —II. Models for Spherical Embryos.” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 50 (1988): 121–142.
Thompson, Richard L. and Narendra S. Goel. “Movable Finite Automata (MFA) Models for Biological Systems I: Bacteriophage Assembly and Operation.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 131 (1988): 351–385.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson, “Movable Finite Automata (MFA) Models for Biological Systems II: Protein Biosynthesis.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 134 (1988): 9–49.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. “Microcomputer Modeling of Self-Organization in Biological Systems.” in Biomedical Modeling and Simulation, edited by J. Eisenfeld and D.S. Levine, 65-67. Basel, Switzerland: J.C. Baltzer AG, 1989.
__________. “Movable Finite Automata (MFA): A New Tool for Computer Modeling of Living Systems.” in Artificial Life : the proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, held September, 1987, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, edited by Christopher G. Langton, 317-340. Redwood, City, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1989.
__________. “Biological Automata Models and Evolution I: The role of computer modeling in theories of evolution and the origin of life.” in Organizational Constraints on the Dynamics of Evolution, edited by G. Vida and J. Mayna,rd-Smith, 15-32. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
Thompson Richard L. and Narendra S. Goel. “Biological Automata Models and Evolution II: The evolution of macromolecular machinery.” in Organizational Constraints on the Dynamics of Evolution, edited by G. Vida and J. Maynard-Smith, 33-48. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
Goel, Narendra S., Ivan Rozehnal, and Richard Thompson. “A Computer Graphics Based Model for Scattering from Objects of Arbitrary Shape in the Optical Region.” Remote Sensing of Environment 36 (1991): 73–104.
__________. “Vegetation Canopies and Objects of Arbitrary Shapes: Computer Generation and Bi-directional Reflectance Calculations.” in Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Courcheval, France, 14–18 Jan. (ESA SP-319, May 1991): 409-413.
Thompson, Richard L. and Narendra S. Goel. “Two Models for Rapidly Calculating Bi-directional Reflectance of Complex Vegetation Scenes: Photon Spread (PS) Model and Statistical Photon Spread (SPS) Model.” Remote Sensing Reviews 16 (1998): 157-207.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. “A Snapshot of Canopy Reflectance Models and a Universal Model for the Radiation Regime.” Remote Sensing Reviews 18 (2000): 197–206.
Pinty, B., N. Gobron, J-L. Widlowski , S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson. “Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) Exercise.” Journal of Geophysical Research 106, (2001): 11,937-11,956.
Pinty, B., J-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, N. Gobron, M. M. Verstraete, M. Disney, F. Gascon, J-P. Gastellu, L. Jiang, A. Kuusk, P. Lewis, X. Li, W. Ni-Meister, T. Nilson, P. North, W. Qin, L. Su, S. Tang, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, H. Wang, J. Wang, G. Yan, and H. Zang. “Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) Exercise: Results from the second phase.” Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): D06210.
Bhaktivedanta Institute publications and presentations:
Singh, Thoudam D. (Swarupa Damodara Dasa Brahmancari) and Richard L. Thompson (Sadaputa Dasa Adhikari). What is Matter, What is Life. Monograph Series No. 1. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
Thompson, Richard L. (Sadaputa Dasa Adhikari). Demonstration By Information Theory that Life Cannot Arise from Matter. Monograph Series No. 2. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
__________. Consciousness and the Laws of Nature, Monograph Series No. 3. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
Thompson, Richard L. (Sadaputa dasa). “Srila Prabhuapda’s insight into the issues of modern science.” in Perspectives on Bhaktivedanta Institute, 25-28. Mayapura, West Bengal: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1979.
Thompson, Richard L. “The Nature of Biological Form.” in Bhaktivedanta Institute Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1979).
__________. “’Scientific Materialism’—Science, or Mythology? A review of Edward Wilson’s” On Human Nature. in Bhaktivedanta Institute Bulletin. Vol. 1, No. 1 (1979).
__________. “On Inspiration.” The Bhaktivedanta Institute Essays on The Foundations of Knowledge. Philadelphia: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1979. Also published in Consciousness: The Missing Link: Scientists of the Bhaktivedanta Institute examine key underlying concepts of the modern life sciences, 23-36. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1980.
Sadaputa dasa. “The Computerized Mr. Jones.” in Consciousness: The Missing Link: Scientists of the Bhaktivedanta Institute examine key underlying concepts of the modern life sciences, 37-56. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1980. Also published in Back to Godhead magazine, Vol. 15, No. 10 (1980).
Thompson, Richard L. Vedic Chronology and The Geological Time Scale. Working Paper No. 1. Philadelphia: Sa-Vijanam Project, 1981.
__________. “God and the Laws of Physics.” in Synthesis of Science and Religion: critical essays and dialogues, edited by T.D. Singh and Ravi Gomatam, 213-237. San Francisco: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1986.
Thompson, R. L. “A Trans-Temporal Approach to Mind-Brain Interaction,” presented at The First International Conference on the Study of Consciousness Within Science. Bhaktivedanta Institute, San Francisco, Feb., 1990.
Thompson, Richard. “The Relation Between Science and Religion: The Contribution of Gaudiya Vaisnavism,” presented at the Parliament of World’s Religions, Chicago, 1993. Also titled, “Reflections on the Relationship Between Religion and Modern Rationalism” as a BI presentation; and “Rational ‘Mythology’” in BTG Vol. 28 No. 1 (1994) and Thompson (2004).
__________. “Numerical Analysis and Theoretical Modeling of Causal Effects of Conscious Intention.” Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine 2 No. 1 (1991): 47-70.
__________. “Emperor Asoka and the Five Greek Kings.” Alachua, FL: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1994.
__________. “On the Antiquity of the Star Coordinates from the Indian Jyotisa Sastras.” San Diego: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1991, and Badger, CA: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1994.
__________. “Apes, Angels, and Virtual Reality: A Theory of the Origins of Homo Sapiens.” Alachua, FL: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1995.
__________. “Anomalous Textual Artifacts in Archeo-astronomy,” presented at the World Association of Vedic Studies conference, Atlanta, Oct. 1996. Alachua, FL: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1996.
__________. “Planetary Diameters in the Surya Siddhanta.” Journal of Scientific Exploration. 11 (1997): 193-200.
__________. “On Religion and Science.” Alachua, FL: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1997.
__________. “A Map of the Solar System in the Bhagavata Purana.” Alachua, FL: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1998.
Back to Godhead magazine articles:
Madhava dasa, Sadaputa dasa, and Svarupa Damodara dasa. “Can Creation Come from Chaos,” BTG 11, No. 6 (1976).
Madhava dasa and Sadaputa dasa. “Two Ph.D.’s for Krishna.” Back to Godhead Vol. 11, No. 6 (1976).
Thompson, Richard L. “Chemistry and Consciousness” Back to Godhead Vol. 13, No. 9 (1978).
__________, “Machinery of Evolution: Out of Gear?” Back to Godhead Vol. 14, No. 1 (1979).
Sadaputa Dasa, “Reality, Life and Quantum Mechanics,” Back to Godhead Vol. 14, No. 5 (1979).
__________, “On Inspiration,” Back to Godhead Vol. 14, No. 12 (1979).
__________, “Searching Past the Mechanics of Perception,” Back to Godhead Vol. 15, No. 9 (1980).
__________, “The Computerized Mr. Jones: Can a machine be conscious?” Back to Godhead Vol. 15, No. 10 (1980).
__________, “Chance and the Unity of Nature,” Back to Godhead Vol. 16, No. 1 (1981).
__________, “Evolution: Doctrine in Search of Theory,” Back to Godhead Vol. 16, No. 5 (1981).
__________, “Dialogue on the Ghost in the Machine,” Back to Godhead Vol. 16, No. 9 (1981).
__________, “Bhakti Yoga, Nonmechanistic Science I,” Back to Godhead Vol. 16, No. 10 (1981).
__________, “Bhakti Yoga, Nonmechanistic Science II,” Back to Godhead, Vol. 16, No. 11 (1981).
__________, “Bhakti Yoga, Nonmechanistic Science III,” Back to Godhead Vol. 16, No. 12 (1981).
__________, “Yoga or Hypnotherapy?” Back to Godhead Vol. 19, No. 01 (1982).
__________, “Focus on Spiritual Science,” Back to Godhead Vol. 19, No. 1 (1984).
__________, “High Technology and The Ground of Being,” Back to Godhead Vol. 23, No. 5 (1988).
__________, “Life, Real and Artificial,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 1 (1991).
__________, “Clockwork Universe in Chaos,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 2 (1991).
__________, “Cross-Cultural Traces Vedic Civilization,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 3 (1991).
__________, “Astronomy and Antiquity Vedic Civilization,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991).
__________, “Primordial Alphabet Soup,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 5 (1991).
__________, “Collapsing the Cosmic Hierarchy,” Back to Godhead Vol. 25, No. 6 (1991).
__________, “Little Man in the Brain,” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 1 (1992).
__________, “Imitators of Life,” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 2 (1992).
__________, “Mystic Perfections and Long Distance Hypnosis,” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 3 (1992).
__________, “Paradoxes of Time and Space,” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 4 (1992).
__________, “Was There an Eve?” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 5 (1992).
__________, “On God and Science,” Back to Godhead Vol. 26, No. 6 (1992).
__________, “World Views: Vedic vs. Western,” Back to Godhead Vol. 27, No. 1 (1993).
__________, “Consciousness and New Physics,” Back to Godhead Vol. 27, No. 2 (1993).
__________, “Lifeless Vitalism,” Back to Godhead Vol. 27, No. 3 (1993).
__________, “Does God Go Against Laws of Physics?” Back to Godhead Vol. 27, No. 4 (1993).
__________, “Seeds of Reason,” Back to Godhead Vol. 27, No. 5 (1993).
__________, “Rational Mythology: Can a rational person accept the stories of the Puranas as literally true?” Back to Godhead Vol. 28, No. 1 (1994).
__________, “Miracle of the Milk,” Back to Godhead Vol. 30, No. 2 (1996).
__________, “Exact Science in Srimad-Bhagavatam: A unit of measure known as the yojana hints at advanced astronomical knowledge in the ancient Vedic civilization,” Back to Godhead Vol. 31, No. 4 (1997).
__________, “Advanced Astronomy in Srimad-Bhagavatam,” Back to Godhead Vol. 31, No. 6 (1997).
__________, “The Universe of the Vedas,” Back to Godhead Vol. 34, No. 6 (2000).
__________, “Challenges Facing Science and Religion: While scientific discoveries test religious dogma, religious and paranormal experiences challenge scientific theories,” Back to Godhead Vol. 35, No. 2 (2001).
__________, “Time Travel and Consciousness,” Back to Godhead Vol. 41, No. 5 (2007).
Books, monographs, and other publications:
Thompson, Richard L. Equilibrium States of Thin Energy Shells. Providence. RI: American Mathematical Society, 1974.
Singh, Thoudam D. (Swarupa Damodara Dasa Brahmancari) and Richard L. Thompson (Sadaputa Dasa Adhikari). What is Matter, What is Life. Monograph Series No. 1. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
Thompson, Richard L. (Sadaputa Dasa Adhikari). Demonstration By Information Theory that Life Cannot Arise from Matter. Monograph Series No. 2. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
__________. Consciousness and the Laws of Nature. Monograph Series No. 3. Boston: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1977.
Thompson, Richard L. Mechanistic and Nonmechanistic Science: An investigation into the nature of consciousness and form. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1981.
Sadaputa dasa, ed., Origins: Higher Dimensions in Science. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1984.
Goel, Narendra S. and Richard L. Thompson. Computer Simulations of Self-Organization in Biological Systems. London: Croom Helm, 1988.
Thompson, Richard L. Vedic Cosmography and Astronomy. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1989.
__________. Alien Identities: Ancient insights into modern UFO phenomena. San Diego: Govardhan Hill Publishing, 1993.
Cremo, Michael A. and Richard L. Thompson. Forbidden Archeology: The hidden history of the human race. San Diego: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1993.
__________. The Hidden History of the Human Race. Badger, CA: Govardhan Hill Publishing, 1994.
Thompson, Richard L. Mysteries of the Sacred Universe: The cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana. Alachua, FL: Govardhan Hill Publishing, 2000.
__________. Maya: The world as virtual reality. Alachua, FL: Govardhan Hill Publishing, 2003.
__________. God & Science: Divine causation and the laws of nature. Alachua, FL: Govardhan Hill Publishing, 2004.
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